Saturday, April 30, 2011

Olimpiade Ekonomi 2011 (1)




Takehome Olimpiade Ekonomi, Pertemuan 1


Date : 30 April 2011
Time : 20 minutes
Lecturer : Dedy Arfiansyah

Problem 1 (25%)
a.What is opportunity cost? And why is it important for economist?
b.Please explain the opportunity cost in relation with : (i) problem of scarcity and choice; (ii) cost of production measurement.

Problem 2 (25%)
“Government intervention in competitive markets is not always bad. Sometimes government intervention can improve economic efficiency.” Do you agree with the statement? In what condition that it happens?

Problem 3 (25%)
a.Please explain and prove why does demand curve have negative slope? Note: horizontal curve is quantity of goods and vertical curve is price of goods per unit
b.Please explain whether it is possible that a demand curve has positive slope.

Problem 4 (25%)
Dalam situasi defisit anggaran, dua jenis perusahaan yang berbeda harus mencari solusi terbaik untuk mengatasinya. PT. Kereta Api Indonesia menaikkan harga tiket untuk semua jenis kereta penumpang, sedangkan Bioskop 21 menurunkan harga karcis masuk per sekali kunjungan. Adakah kebijakan yang salah dalam menghadapi situasi tersebut?

PLEASE WORK BY YOURSELF

6 comments:

  1. 1. opportunity cost adalah biaya atau nilai yang tidak dipilih. Hal ini punya keterkaitan dengan masalah kelangkaan karena dalam situasi max utility dan min cost seseorang harus memilih (choice). Penting bagi ekonom karena untuk melakukan opportunity cost, juga harus melakukan trade off (pengorbanan).Pengukuran biaya produksi juga dapat diperkirakan dengan mengetahui opprortunity cost.

    2. SETUJU, karena sistem ekonomi yang relatif tidak terdapat kesenjangan adalah sistem ekonomi campuran. Intervensi pemerintah memang diperlukan untuk melakukan efisiensi. Contohnya dalam mengendalikan kurs mata uang asing. Sistem kurs mengambang terkendali, kurs ditentukan dengan mekanisme permintaan dan penawaran(pasar)namun pemerintah dapat juga mempengaruhi nilai tukar apabila kurs naik atau turun melebihi batas yang telah ditentukan (pita intervensi)

    3. kemiringan kurva permintaan negatif karena bila harga meningkat, maka jumlah barang akan berkurang begitu sebaliknya, dan jika harga mencapai titik maksimal maka barang akan tidak ada begitu sebaliknya, sehingga dalam bentuknya garis ditarik dari kiri atas ke kanan bawah, yang berarti negatif. BISA, terjadi dalam tiga barang yaitu, prestise, spekulasi, dan giffen yang apabila harga naik, jumlah barang juga bertambah atau jika harga turun, tdk berpengaruh pada peningkatan jumlah barang(giffen).

    4. TIDAK, karena kereta api melayani kebutuhan transportasi yang tinggi tinkat permintaannya sehingga konsumen tetap akan membeli tiket meskipun harganya naik, sedangkan bioskop 21 melayani dalam hal hiburan yang beberapa konsumennya akan berpikir dua kali jika mereka meningkatkan harga tiket, maka dari itu mereka melancarkan strategi murah meriah asal laku.

    SEKIAN. terima kasih telah meluangkan waktu untuk membaca jawaban yang tidak tahu benar atau salah ini. Abidah Syauqina

    ReplyDelete
  2. [ Problem 1 ]

    a. Opportunity cost is the cost that should be payed or sacrificed. And it will make our economist’ system develop, because if we sacrifies something then the resource that being used will decrease and it makes the other resource will be use in other situation and our resource will be more enough for our equipment so our economist in this country will develop.

    b.i. If there is some products get a scarcity, but what we want is the product which is rare. So there are several choice for us to solve it. The 1st is choose the other product which are suitable for us too. And the 2nd, look for the same product and if that available we should pay it more expensive and give more sacrifies to get it. Or we can say that if we have already choose the product that we like, so we have to leave or sacrifies the other. This situation is very important for economist, because with opportunity cost people can consume the products what they like but not consume too much.

    b.ii. the company can make a product with their resource but not all of them can be use, so the company should sacrifies the other resource. The cost of production from the product is the points of the alternative product which are leaving and could make the other products from that resource. for example if the farmer had a land and basically it can be use for planting a corn, tea, and tobacco. And the farmer choose a tea for planted on his land, so the farmer has leave his change for palnting corn and tobacco. The result of the alternative planting corn and tobacco is called opportunity cost.

    [ Problem 2 ]

    I agree with this statement because government always want the economic in this country more efeciency. For example is when the kerosene stove switch to gas stove. This is actually happens because the kerosene’s resource in Indonesia has decrease, and it makes there is a scarcity of kerosene in everywhere. So the government switch the kerosene stove to gas stove to anticipate scarcity of kerosene. And the government make the new gas cylinders for poor people so they can cook with the gas stove with affordable price. In this case government intervention in competitive markets is not always bad.

    Innanti Satriani
    XI IPS 2 SMAIT Nurul Fikri

    ReplyDelete
  3. [ Problem 3 ]

    a. This is the picture of demand curve. We can see that the diagonal line starts from the top of the left and ended in the bottom of the right, which means that the slope of the curve is negative. It is because the price is down from 3.000 to 2.000, it means that the price is getting reduction but the quantity is increase. It means that with a low price we buy a lot of things and spend our money. And if the quantity is increasing it means that the amounts of the product that will produce will increase and the economic will be unstable.

    b. It is possible that the demand curve has a positive slope, it happens because the price and the quantity of the product changes together, when the price is up then the quantity will up too, ang when the price is low then the quantitiy will low too. It is apply for 3 kinds of things :
    1. goods speculation, it happens when the prices is predicted will more expensive in the future so people are in competition to buy it now and may be sold it in the future.
    2. prestige goods, for example is a diamond. In a special event everybody will bought the diamond because they think, people who can but a diamond is a rich people.
    3. giffen goods, it happens when the sago, the tradition food of papua’s people is started to left by them and change that with rice. It means that people think that if we buy sago we are poor people because it is a low quality.

    [ Problem 4 ]

    Menurut pendapat saya tidak ada yang salah dengan kebijakan kedua perusahaan tersebut. Karena jika dibandigkan dengan permintaan kedua perusahaan tersebut maka defisit akan teratasi. Jika pada PT KAI menaikan harga tiket kereta api merupakan cara untuk menutupi defisit adalah benar. Karena walaupun harga tiket kereta api dinaikan, jumlah pembeli pun akan tetap sama. Karena kereta api adalah transportasi umum yang setiap saat dubutuhkan oleh manusia. Berbeda dengan perusahan bioskop 21 yang tidak setiap saat ramai didatangi pengunjung. Maka jalan terbaiknya adalah menurunkan harga sehingga orang akan sering menonton film di bioskop dengan harga murah.

    Innanti Satriani
    XI IPS 2 SMAIT Nurul Fikri

    ReplyDelete
  4. 1. a. opportunity cost is cost of trade off from choices. its important to help choosing the right choice from choices
    1. b. (i) in every problem of scarcity, there must be choices to choose. then when we choose one of the choices, the trade offs choice cost the opportunity cost.
    1. b. (ii) when you want to product goods, you have to make it efficient. so the oppportunity cost > cost of production.
    2. yes. it happens when inflation occur.
    3. a. because price and quantity is moving in different direction on demands slope.
    3. b. its possible. speculation, prestise, and inferior goods can turn demands slope into positive slope.
    4. gak

    maaf ya ka baru jawab sekarang

    ReplyDelete
  5. Nama : Safira Puspaning Ayu
    Sekolah : SMAIT NURUL FIKRI Depok

    Aku jawabnya ngacak ya kak…..

    Problem 3.
    a)demand curve has negative slope because it has opposite direction. For example, if price rise, the quantity of goods will down, and if price down, the goods quantity will rise.


    b) it is possible for 3 special goods
    first, Prestige goods.
    Eg: if diamond price rise, the demand rise too. Because diamond is a prestige goods, if you have prestige goods, many people envy to you. It makes you proud of it.

    Second, speculation goods
    Eg: Land. Many people speculate that the land price will rise 5 years later. So, many people buy it(the demand rise), hope they can sell it more expensive next 5 years.

    Third, Giffen goods
    It’s different from prestige and speculation goods. If price of prestige goods rise the demand rise too. But for giffen, if the price down, the demand down too. I think it’s impossible if the giffen price rise, the demand will rise too. Because giffen goods are the low quality goods.
    Eg: sago, in papua, if someone income rise, he will prefer to choose rice than sago. If sago prices down, maybe he still want to buy, but if sago prices rise he will not buy it because he think, it’s better to buy rise that has better quality

    Problem 1.
    a)Opportunity cost is, the cost for activity that we leave for the other activities.
    This is important because they can consider which activity to do, and which ones should be abandoned. So they know which is more profitable.

    b) i] opportunity cost in relation with choice: can choose which job or activity they like and earn more money.

    Opportunity cost in relation with scarcity: can choose which scarce good will makes more profitable. For example: in 2198, diamond and gold are scarce, diamond prices is $90 per gram, gold prices is $ 80 per gram. But, people know in 8 years later, gold becomes more rare so the gold price will be rise $110 per gram, beside the diamond price will rise $80 per gram. So they better to buy gold now.


    ii] example: if producen choose to produce book from high quality recycle paper it will cost $15 per book, if they choose high quality usual paper, it’ll cost $10 per book. But if they choose high quality ususal paper, they will get prizes from Enviroment Minister. So they will choose High quality recycle paper, so they’ll get prizes that makes them more famous.

    problem 4.
    Menurut saya, kebijakan yang ditetapkan bioskop 21 benar, dngan begitu akan lebih banyak pengunjung yg datang sehingga cepat menstabilkan keuangan. Tidak dgn PT.KAI. kebijakan yang ditetapkan salah, justru akan menurunkan minat penumpang.seharusnya ,mereka membuat promo, misalnya beli 3 tiket gratis 1 tiket. Ini akan menarik minat calon penumpang sehingga bisa cepat menstabilkan keuangan.

    Problem 2.
    Government intervention in competitive market is not always bad in several condition. For example. If the maximum price of rice not rise, farmer will not earn enough money.so the government intervene. Government rise the maximum price.
    Second. There are import sugar that kill local sugar market. So government limit the quota of import sugar.
    Third. In little town, there are 78 markets. It makes the visitors not balance between one markets and the others. So government decide , that only 25 markets may operate. So the visitors will balance.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Nama : Safira Puspaning Ayu
    Sekolah : SMAIT NURUL FIKRI Depok

    Aku jawabnya ngacak ya kak…..

    Problem 3.
    a)demand curve has negative slope because it has opposite direction. For example, if price rise, the quantity of goods will down, and if price down, the goods quantity will rise.


    b) it is possible for 3 special goods

    first, Prestige goods.
    Eg: if diamond price rise, the demand rise too. Because diamond is a prestige goods, if you have prestige goods, many people envy to you. It makes you proud of it.

    Second, speculation goods
    Eg: Land. Many people speculate that the land price will rise 5 years later. So, many people buy it(the demand rise), hope they can sell it more expensive next 5 years.

    Third, Giffen goods
    It’s different from prestige and speculation goods. If price of prestige goods rise the demand rise too. But for giffen, if the price down, the demand down too. I think it’s impossible if the giffen price rise, the demand will rise too. Because giffen goods are the low quality goods.
    Eg: sago, in papua, if someone income rise, he will prefer to choose rice than sago. If sago prices down, maybe he still want to buy, but if sago prices rise he will not buy it because he think, it’s better to buy rise that has better quality

    Problem 1.
    a)Opportunity cost is, the cost for activity that we leave for the other activities.
    This is important because they can consider which activity to do, and which ones should be abandoned. So they know which is more profitable.

    b) i] opportunity cost in relation with choice: can choose which job or activity they like and earn more money.

    Opportunity cost in relation with scarcity: can choose which scarce good will makes more profitable. For example: in 2198, diamond and gold are scarce, diamond prices is $90 per gram, gold prices is $ 80 per gram. But, people know in 8 years later, gold becomes more rare so the gold price will be rise $110 per gram, beside the diamond price will rise $80 per gram. So they better to buy gold now.

    ii] example: if producen choose to produce book from high quality recycle paper it will cost $15 per book, if they choose high quality usual paper, it’ll cost $10 per book. But if they choose high quality ususal paper, they will get prizes from Enviroment Minister. So they will choose High quality recycle paper, so they’ll get prizes that makes them more famous.

    problem 4.
    Menurut saya, kebijakan yang ditetapkan bioskop 21 benar, dngan begitu akan lebih banyak pengunjung yg datang sehingga cepat menstabilkan keuangan. Tidak dgn PT.KAI. kebijakan yang ditetapkan salah, justru akan menurunkan minat penumpang.seharusnya ,mereka membuat promo, misalnya beli 3 tiket gratis 1 tiket. Ini akan menarik minat calon penumpang sehingga bisa cepat menstabilkan keuangan.

    Problem 2.
    Government intervention in competitive market is not always bad in several condition. For example. If the maximum price of rice not rise, farmer will not earn enough money.so the government intervene. Government rise the maximum price.
    Second. There are import sugar that kill local sugar market. So government limit the quota of import sugar.
    Third. In little town, there are 78 markets. It makes the visitors not balance between one markets and the others. So government decide , that only 25 markets may operate. So the visitors will balance.

    ReplyDelete

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